We can explain defenses to violation of probation you may not be aware of.         Experience gained in 1000s of cases since 1973.         There is no substitute for experience!         410 - 486 - 1800   24/7

Maryland Probation Lawyer
Aggressive Representation

Hardship and Difficult Cases Accepted
Experienced gained in 1000s of cases.
410 - 486 - 1800 24/7
Upon receipt of your call, we can explain defenses to violation of probation charges that you may not be aware of.     Because you were charged with a violation of your probation does not mean the state can prove it in every case.   Effective defenses, that are frequently overlooked, can best be utilized in the beginning stages of a violation of probation case to prevent the imposition of a jail sentence.   Upon receipt of your call we can explain defeneses to have the violation of probation dismissed sometimes prior to the trial. .

Client Comments

"Bruce Lamb is the lawyer you need to speak with about violation of probabtion. He researched higher court cases, prepared and filed pre-hearing motions and got the violation dismissed before any one had to testify. His representation was excellent. ~~B.W.

"Many thanks for your outstanding representation in getting my violation of probation charge dismissed prior to the hearing, especially since the probation officer was recommending my probation be terminated and that I go to jail."~~M. N.

"Your aggressive representation was outstanding as it exceeded the result I hoped for as in addition to blocking the violation, you were above to get an early termination of my probation. You are the lawyer they need to talk to."~~C. C.

"I never realized how technical a charge of violation of probation could be and could have never presented the defenses you made on my behalf that resulted in an acquittal of all charges."~~S. R.

"Thank you for your excellent representation, providing clear answers throughout the case and defending the violation of my existing probation due to a subsequent conviction, so I did not have to serve either sentence imposed by each court."~~A. C.

The goal of a violation of probation charge is to terminate the probation and to impose the origional jail sentence that the judge imposed.   The goal of the accused should be to determine what legal defenses are available to prevent the jail sentence that the judge imposed. If the accused is not able to get the violation dismissed, the accused will have to go to jail rather than remain on probation.

Jack Hyatt, for many years was a senior criminal probation officer, a Former Assistant States Attorney and has participated in numerous violation of probation and parole trials and can provide the very best opportunity to present legal defenses to avoid the actual jail sentence to be imposed.

The experience, specific training and education of the lawyer that represents you can make the entire difference between wining and losing your case.

The goal of a violation proceeding is to impose the original jail sentence.  Special defenses are available in these proceedings.

A violation of probation or parole occurs when conditions of probation have been breached or violated.

Jack Hyatt thoroughly understands the mechanics of probation, what the state's burdens are to prove a violation of probation, what defenses will best work and which defenses will not work. He will bring his experiences, using both sides of the law, to aggressively represent you in your violation of probation and will provide the very best opportunity to avoid a jail sentence.   You can begin your case by scheduling an appointment, or if you are more than twenty miles from our office, or if you are presently incarcerated, you can begin your case by mail.

You can call now.   410-486-1800   24/7.

     If we accept your case, we will provide you with a special prompt package that will enable you to detail exactly what occurred. After questioning you, we will detail all of your options and the very best way to proceed in your case.   If you are on probation with harsh conditions, with the correct preparation, it is possible to have the conditions of probation modified, and sometimes terminated early.

What is a Probation Violation?    When a Maryland criminal defendant is on probation, there are general conditions of probation in the probation order and special conditions of probation that are usually written in by the court that have to be obeyed. If any of these rules are broken during the probationary period, a probation violation occurs, which could result in the having the probation terminated and the origional jail sentence imposed. In order for probation to be terminated, however, the court must hold a hearing at which the defendant will either admit or deny the violation.

What are the ways that Probation be Violated?      Probation can be violated in a number of different ways. The most frequent ways in which of probation can be violated are:

Failure to pay court ordered restitution or fines. When the defendant does not pay required restitution or fines to the victim, a probation violation may occur and a show cause order can be issued. A show cause order is serious because the defendant is required to show the judge cause why he or she should not be found in violation.

Possession of Illegal Substances - a probation violation may occur when the defendant possesses illegal weapons or drugs.

Committing a subsequent offense. - Staying out of trouble is mandatory during probation. Even if the subsequent offense has nothing to do with the charge underlying the probation, for example if a defendant on probation for assault is arrested for drunk driving, the second arrest will violate the original proabion.

When the defendant commits new crimes during the probationary period, a probation violation may occur. Being charged for any subsequent offenses is usually a violation of the order of probation.

In the event you are charged with a violation of probation, the most effective time to retain a lawyer who understands the mechanics of probation is immediately so that certain common mistakes can be avoided.

Probation before judgment is a sentence available to certian first-time offenders. Probation before judgment is neither a conviction nor an acquittal, however, if the defendant completes the terms of his or her probation, such as completing a substance abuse program or paying restitution, he or she may be able to expunge any public record of the proceeding.

Probation is an option when sentencing instead of sending the convicted person to jail. Probation may not be available in all cases.

An offender on probation is ordered to follow certain general conditions of probation that are usually printed in the order of probation and special conditions that can be written in by the judge that are administered under the supervision of a probation officer. The probationer is ordinarily required to refrain from future criminal activity or having possession of a gun, and may be ordered to continue working, reside in a certain place, obey the orders of the probation officer, or not leave the area. The probationer may be ordered as well to refrain from contact with the victims, with potential victims of similar crimes. An order of probation may also contain special conditions of probation such as not to consume alcohol or possess drugs.

Failure to comply with special or general conditions of probation. A violation of probation can take place when a person on probation fails to complete the required conditions of probation.

Failure to appear when ordered. When the defendant fails to appear for the required court appearance, a probation violation may occur. Violation of Rules Part of probation may include rules that prohibit the defendant from visiting certain locations or persons. When the defendant fails to adhere to these rules, a probation violation may occur.

Failure to report as ordered by the probation officer. The probation officer can order the defendant to report to a probation office at scheduled times. The failure to appear when expected may result in a probation violation.

A special condition of probation is a private law that applies only to the person on probation. It is always very specific, for example defendant is to have no contact with the victim, or defendant must attend a victim impact presentation provided by Mothers Against Drunk Driving.

If you were given probation, as part of your sentence you can also be able to do a work release program that means that instead of actually going to jail, you could stay at home and work so long as you complied with the conditions of your probation. It is also possible that the person on probation may be required to possess an electronic device, which signals whereabouts to officials. It is not unusual for a person on probation to be ordered to submit to alcohol or drug testing or to participate in alcohol or programs.

A Probation violation itself is a criminal charge that occurs when you break the terms or general or special conditions of your probation. The offense carries a wide variety of of sanctions that can include the imposition of the original sentence. This means that if you are found to have violated the terms and conditions of your probation, the probation can be violated.

A Maryland probation lawyer can look for facts and circumstances that are available to contest the general conditions that are set forth in any violation of probation. A Maryland probation attonney can look for issues that will be helpful to contest the violations of special conditions that may have been imposed.

Mailing address:
Jack Hyatt
1866 Autumn Frost Lane
Baltimore, MD 21209-1131

Helpful legal Terms

Frequently asked questions:

What are the consequences of a violation of probation?

The consquences of a violation of probation may be that the entire original jail sentence could be imposed. On the other hand, the defendant's probation officer may agree to continue the probation, or may request a modification of the terms of probation.

Is a violation of probation a felony?

A violation of probation is not in itself a felony, however, the underlying offense may well be a felony.

What happens when a person is found to have violated his or her probation?

When a person is found to have violated his or her probation, the probation may terminated and the original sentence may imposed, or the probation may be continued, or the entire probation may be closed.

Is violation of probation a misdemeanor?

Violation of probation is a misdemeanor when the underlying offense is a misdemeanor.

What is the range of violation of probation jail time?

The violation of probation jail time, if any, is determined by the judge. The same judge will preside over the probation for the entire length of the probation. Often, a conviction results in a split sentence, so that a person is sentenced to sixty days in prison with thirty days suspended, followed by eighteen months of supervised probation.

What is violation of probation charge?

A violation of probation charge occurs when a general or special condition is violated. A general condition might require the defendant to obey all laws, while a special condition might require the defendant to have no contact with the victim.

What happens at a violation of probation sentencing?

At a probation sentencing, the court will hear the evidence and make a decision as to whether the conduct alleged violates the defendant's probation and whether the probation should be revoked, continued, or closed. The standard of proof is different at a probation hearing than at a criminal trial. In a criminal trial, the State's case must be proved beyond a reasonable doubt, sometimes expressed as 95% confidence in a defendant's guilt, while at a violation of probation hearing, the evidence must only be more likely than not, sometimes expressed as 51% confidence. In addition, the rules of evidence at a violation of probation hearing are somewhat looser than those of a criminal trial, so that hearsay, for example, can be considered.

What is a violation of probation warrant?

A violation of probation warrant is issued by a judge when the person on probation can not be found; it requires any police officer in the State to apprehend the subject and hold him or her for trial.

What causes a a violation of probation?

A violation of probation occurs when the person on probation defaults on any of the conditions by, for instance, failing to report to his or her probation officer as scheduled or failing to pay restitution. Failure to pay probation costs by itself will not usually subject a person to incarceration. The most frequent excuse for defendants accused of failing to report is a lack of transportation, however, judges almost never accept this excuse, since it is up to each person to secure transportation and to allow sufficient travel time.

Probation Before Judgment Probation Before Judgment. - This is a sentence in which the finding of guilty is not imposed. probation - An alternative to jail permitting a person found guilty of an offense to stay in the community, usually under conditions and under the supervision of a probation officer. A violation of probation can lead to its revocation and to imprisonment

Violation of Probation - Failure of a probationer to observe a general or special condition takes place. A general term of probation might be that the defendant obey all laws, while a specific condition might be that the defendant complete anger management or substance abuse training.

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Order of Probation - Order setting the limits of what a person can not do must perform while on probation. Some duties of a probationer might include attending a victim impact panel or completing community service, while forbidden activities might include the abusive use of any drugs or alcohol.

Product liability - Legal responsibility of seller and manufacturers to buyers, users, and bystanders for damages or injuries suffered because of defects in goods.

Promisee - Individual to whom a promise is made.

Malicious prosecution - Action instituted to injuring the defendant and without probable cause, and which terminates in favor of the person prosecuted

Litigation - legal action or lawsuit, including all proceedings therein.

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Minor - person under eighteen years of age.

Malfeasance - commission of an unlawful act or ommission.

Guardianship - Legal responsibility for the housing, food, health care, and other necessities of a person deemed incapable of providing these necessities for himself or herself. A guardian also may be charged with managing a person's financial affairs, and thus perform additionally as a conservator.

Maryland Probation Lawyer

Harmless Error - Error committed during a trial that was not serious enough to affect the outcome of the trial or was corrected and therefore was not sufficiently prejudicial or harmful to require that the judgment be reversed on appeal.

Hearing -Proceeding, generally public, at which an issue of fact or law is discussed and either party has the right to be heard,

Caveat - caution or warning.

Promisor - individual who makes a promise.

Promissory estoppel - promise which prevents a promisee from asserting or taking certain action

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Certiorari - review a lower court's decision by an appellate court. If an appellate court grants the writ of certiorari, it agrees to take the appeal. This is often referred to as granting cert., and results in an order to the lower court to convey the record of the case to the appellate court and to certify it as accurate and complete. Usually refers to a request for the Supreme Court to review a decision of the Court of Appeals.

Certified Copy - copy of a document with a certificate attesting to its completeness and accuracy completeness by the officer oor person who has custody of the original.

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Driving on Suspended License carries a potential fine and even jail time.

Driver's License License Suspension can be avoided with proper representation.

Suspended License: you will be issued a citation if you are stopped while driving on a suspended license.

Driver License: many traffic cases are heard not only by the court system but by the Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA).

My Driver License Suspended. If your driver's license has been suspended in Maryland, a Maryland lawyer can help you get it reinstated.

Legal aid - Professional legal services available usually to persons or organizations unable to afford such services.

Case Law - Law established by previous decisions of appellate courts of different levels.

Fruit of the Poisonous Tree - statements made or property seized subsequent to and because of an illegal search or interrogation. Fruit of the poisonous tree is generally not admissible in evidence because it is tainted by the illegal search or interrogation.

Prosecutor - trial lawyer representing the government in a criminal case and the interests of the state in civil matters. In criminal cases, the prosecutor has the responsibility of deciding who and when to prosecute

Proximate cause - last negligent act which contributes to an injury. A person generally is liable only if an injury was proximately caused by his or her failure to act when he or she had a duty to act or by his or her action.

Proxy - instrument authorizing one person to represent, act, and vote for another at a shareholders' meeting of a corporation.

Final Order - order that ends the lawsuit between the parties, resolves the merits of the case, and leaves nothing to be done but enforcement.

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Property tax - tax levied on land or buildings real estate and on personal property.

Legitimate - That which is lawful, legal, recognized by law or according to law.

Fraud - Intentional deception to deprive another person of property or to injure that person in some way.

Implied Warranty of Merchantability - assumption in law that the goods are fit for the ordinary purposes for which the goods are used. This implied warranty applies to every sale by a merchant who deals in goods of the kind sold. However, if there is a warning that the goods are sold as is, the implied warranty does not apply.

Living trust - trust established and in effect during the lifetime of the grantor.

Hung jury - Jury unable to reach a verdict in the case. A trial ending in a hung jury may result in a retrial with a new jury.

Legal process - formal paper which is legally valid orsomething issuing from acourt that can be a command such as a writ or mandate.

Legislation - act of giving or enacting laws; the power to make laws via legislation in contrast to court made laws.

Hearsay - Testimony by the witness concerning events about that the witness has no personal knowledge. Hearsay testimony conveys not what the witness observed personally, but what others told the witness or what the witness heard others say.

Loose-leaf services -Loose-leaf replacement pages provided by a publisher in areas of the law where changes occur at a rapid rate,

Minute book - book maintained by the courtroom deputy, which contains minute entries of all hearings and trial conducted by the judge.

Chambers - judge's private office. A hearing in chambers takes place in the judge's office outside of the presence of the jury and the public.

Change of Venue - Moving a lawsuit or criminal trial to another place for trial. Venue may be changed when a cases has received so much local publicity as to create a likelihood of bias in the jury pool.

Grantor or Settlor - person who sets up a trust. Also known as the trustor.

Good Faith - Honest intent to act without taking an unfair advantage over another person. This term is applied to many kinds of transactions.

Grand Jury - jury of inquiry convened to determine whether evidence against a defendant justifies issuing an indictment , comprised of not more than 18 and not less than fifteen persons, with at least twelve concurring before an indictment may be returned. .

Cause - litigation, lawsuit, or action. Any issue, civil or criminal, that is litigated or contested before a court of justice.

Caption - The heading on a legal document listing the parties, the court, a case number, and related information.

Foundation - Preliminary questions of a witness in order to establish admissibility of evidence, laying a foundation for admissibility. .

Marshal - executive officer of the federal court.

United Memorandum - informal note or instrument embodying something the parties desire to have in written evidence.

Memorialized - In writing.

Leniency - Recommendation for a sentence less than the maximum amount allowed

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Guardian - person appointed by will or by law to assume responsibility for incompetent adults or minor children. If one parent dies, the children's guardian will generally be the other parent. If both die, it usually will be a close relative.

Habeas Corpus - writ used as a means to bring a person before the court to determine whether he or she is being detained unlawfully,

Proprietor - Owner is the person who has legal right or title to anything

Impeachment of a Witness - An attack on the credibility believability of a witness, through evidence introduced for that purpose. unreliability.

Immunity - grant by the court assuring someone that they will not face prosecution in return for their providing criminal evidence.

Capital Crime - crime possibly punishable by death but this varies from state to state. maryland probation violation occurs when a person fails to live up to the conditioons of probation

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Garnishment - legal proceeding in which a debtor's money, that is in the possession of another called the garnishee , is applied to the debts of the debtor, such as when an employer garnishes a debtor's wages probation in maryland,

Implied Consent - Knowing indirectly through conduct or inaction that a person would agree or give permission. Charge to the Jury - judge's instructions to the jury explaining the law that applies to the facts of the case on trial.

Charges multiple - case with more than one count or offense listed on the court file.

Brief - written statement prepared by one side in a lawsuit to explain to the court its view of the facts of a case and the applicable law. Burden of Proof - In the law of evidence, the necessity or duty of establishing or proving a fact or facts in dispute on an issue raised between the parties in a lawsuit. The responsibility of proving a point or points: The level of the burden of proof for a type of case indicates the degree to which the point must be proven. In a civil case the burden of proof rests with the plaintiff, that must prove his case by the standards of proof as a preponderance of evidence or clear and convincing evidence. In a criminal case, the burden on the prosecutor is to establish the defendant's guilty beyond a reasonable doubt, a much stricter standard.

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Calendar - List of cases scheduled for hearing in court.

Calendaring - Assigning and scheduling of court appearances.

Class Action - lawsuit brought by one or more persons on behalf of a larger group.

Misdemeanor - criminal offense lesser than a felony and generally punishable by fine or by imprisonment other than in a penitentiary.

United States Court of Military Appeals - Court which hears appeals from court marshal decisions, probation in maryland, violation of probation, maryland probation,

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probation surrender occurs when a person submits to the court system

consequences of probation may the the revocation of probation and the inmpostion of the original sentence.

lawyer criminal defense A defense lawyer takes the side of an accused person in a trial or hearing.

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moving while on probation Yoou may move within the state while on probation, but you must notify the department of parole and probation of your whereabouts at all times.

Limited Jurisdiction - Refers to courts that are limited in the types of criminal and civil cases they may hear. For example, traffic violations generally are heard by limited jurisdiction courts.

Good Time - reduction in sentenced time in prison as a reward for good behavior. It usually is one-third to one-half off the maximum sentence.

Malpractice - Any professional misconduct below the standard..

Manslaughter - unlawful killing of another without intent to kill; either voluntary or involuntary

General Jurisdiction - Refers to courts that have no limit on the types of criminal and civil cases they may hear.

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Magistrate - Judicial officer exercising some of the functions of a judge. It also refers in a general way to a judge.

Charging Document - citation, information, indictment or notice to appear, indicating that the named person committed a specific criminal offense or civil infraction. Chief Judge - Presiding or administrative judge in a court.

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Fruit of the Crime - Property acquired in consequence of and by means of the commission of a crime, and sometimes constituting the subject matter of the crime.

Breach of Contract - Failure by one party to abide by the terms of a contract without lawful excuse, maryland probation lawyers, maryland probation attorneys, probation in maryland, probation before judgment,.

Civil Contempt - Contempt can be civil or criminal depending on the purpose the court seeks to achieve through its punishment. Contempt is civil when the purpose of punishment is to coerce the defendant to perform an act previously ordered by the court, which the defendant has not done, such as paying child support. Compare with Criminal

Contempt.

Civil Procedure - The set of rules and process by which a civil case is tried and appealed, including the preparations for trial, the rules of evidence and trial conduct, and the procedure for pursuing appeals.

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Challenge - Term used in a jury trial for an attemp to exclude a potential juror. Challenge for Cause - Objection to the seating of a particular juror for a stated reason usually bias or prejudice for or against one of the parties in the lawsuit . The judge has the discretion to deny the challenge. Distinguished from peremptory challenge, which they party can usually exercise as a matter of right.

In Camera - In chambers or in private. A hearing in camera takes place in the judge's office outside of the presence of the jury and the public.

United States Attorney - A federal district attorney appointed by the President to prosecute for all offenses committed against the United States; to prosecute or defend for the government all civil actions in which it is concerned and perform all duties of the district to which he or she is assigned,

Interrogatories A form of discovery consisting of written questions to be answered in writing and under oath.

In-Custody Arraignments - Arraignment while the defendant remains in jail because defendant has not been released on bond or by other means, maryland probation lawyer, maryland probation attorney, maryland probation lawyers, maryland probation attorneys,.

Indictment The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies , probation before judgment, pbj,.

In forma pauperis In the manner of a pauper or poor person. Permission given by the court to a person to file a case without payment of the required court fees because the person cannot pay them ,

Information A formal accusation by a government attorney that the defendant committed a misdemeanor.

Unfair labor practice - Actions by the employer which interfere with, restrain, coerce, or threaten employees with respect to their rights.

Uniform Commercial Code A uniform law governing sales and leases of goods.

Bond supersedeas - The bond set by a court during the appeal procedure and posted with the Clerk of Court. It ensures payment to the winner at the trial court level if the appeal is unsuccessful.

Mediation - A form of alternative dispute resolution in which the parties bring their dispute to a neutral third party, who helps them agree on a settlement.

Trust agreement or declaration - The legal document that sets up a living trust .Testamentary trusts are set up in a will.

Punitive damages - Money award given to punish the wrongdoeer or defendant.

Litigant - A party to a lawsuit.

Merger - The absorption of one thing or right into another such as a business.

General Damages - Compensation for a loss directly and necessarily incurred by a breach of contract.

Libel - Published defamation which tends to injure the person's reputation.

Fugitive - A person who flees from one state to another to avoid prosecution.

Judgeship The position of judge. By statute, Congress authorizes the number of judgeships for each district and appellate court.

Jurisdiction The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a certain type of case. It also is used as a synonym for venue, meaning the geographic area over which the court has territorial jurisdiction to decide cases.

Jurisprudence The study of law and the structure of the legal system. Circumstantial Evidence - All evidence except eyewitness testimony. Evidence from which an inference must be drawn. Examples include documents, photographs, and physical evidence, such as fingerprints. Citation - A written notice to appear in court, usually to answer a violation of traffic law or other minor criminal laws.

Civil Action - Non-criminal cases in which one private individual, business, or government sues another to protect, enforce, or redress private or civil rights.

Purchase agreement or purchase offer - Also, sales agreement and earnest money contract. Agreement between buyer and seller of property which sets forth in general the price and terms of a proposed sale.

Putative - Alleged; supposed;

Judgment The official decision of the court finally resolving a dispute between the parties to the lawsuit.

Judicial Conference of the United States The policy-making entity for the federal court system.

Inculpatory evidence - Is evidence indicating that a defendant did commit the crime that was charged.

The disputed point between parties in a lawsuit To send out officially, as in the court issuing an order.

Lawsuit - An action or proceeding in a civil court; term used for a suit or action between two private parties in a court of law.

Leading question - A question that suggests the answer desired of the witness. A party generally may not ask one's own witness leading questions. Leading questions may be asked only of hostile witnesses and on cross-examination.

Letters of Administration - Legal document issued by a court that shows an administrator's legal right to take control of assets in a deceased person's name.

Clear and Convincing Evidence - Standard of proof commonly used in civil lawsuits and in regulatory agency appeals. It governs the amount of proof that must be offered in order for the plaintiff to win the case. It imposes a greater burden than the preponderance of evidence standard, but less than the criminal standard beyond a reasonable doubt.

Letters Testamentary - Legal document issued by the court that shows an executor's legal right to take control of assets in the deceased person's name.

Inadmissible - That which, under the rules of evidence, cannot be admitted or received as evidence.

Trust - A legal device used to manage real or personal property, established by one person grantor or settlor for the benefit of another , probation before judgment, pbj,.

Public defender - Government lawyer who provides free legal defense services to a poor person accused of a crime.

Public Service Commission - Public Utilities Commission. A state agency which regulates utilities.

Unilateral contract - An agreement by which one undertakes an express performance without receiving any express promise of performance from the other,

Uniform Laws - Annotated uniform and model acts approved by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws.

Indigency - Financial inability to hire a lawyer or pay court costs.

Public law - That law such as traffic ordinances or zoning ordinances which applies to the public.

Injunction A court order preventing one or more named parties from taking some action. A preliminary injunction often is issued to allow fact-finding, so a judge can determine whether a permanent injunction is justified, maryland probation lawyers, maryland probation attorneys, probation in maryland, probation before judgment,.

Insider of corporate debtor

Joint petition One bankruptcy petition filed by a husband and wife together.

Judge An official of the Judicial branch with authority to decide lawsuits brought before courts. Used generically, a term judge may also refer to all judicial officers, including Supreme Court justices,

Insider of individual debtor Any relative of the debtor or of a general partner of the debtor; partnership inwhich the debtor is a general partner; general partner of the debtor; or corporation of which the debtor is a director, officer, or person in control.

Miranda warning - Requirement that police tell a suspect in their custody of his or her constitutional rights before they question him or her.

Trial - A judicial examination of issues between parties to an action.

Incarcerate - To confine in jail.

Indicia - Signs, indications.

Indictment - The written accusation by a grand jury that charges a person named in the indictment with the violation of a law. Indictments are used for felony charges, not misdemeanors.

Liable - Legally responsible.

Joint administration A court-approved mechanism under which two or more cases can be administered together. Assuming no conflicts of interest, these separate businesses or individuals can pool their resources, hire the same professionals, maryland

Jury The group of persons selected to hear certain evidence in the trial and render the verdict on matters of fact.

Jury instructions: judge's directions to the jury before it begins deliberations regarding the factual questions it must answer and the legal rules that it must apply.

Lawsuit A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty which resulted in harm to the plaintiff,

Trial brief - The written document prepared for and used by an attorney at trial. It contains the issues to be tried, synopsis of evidence to be presented and case and statutory authority to substantiate the attorney's position at trial.

Union - An organization of workers formed for the purpose of collective bargaining , probation before judgment, pbj,.

Indeterminate Sentence - A sentence of imprisonment to a specified minimum and maximum period of time, specifically authorized by statute, subject to termination by a parole board or other authorized agency after the prisoner has served the minimum term.

Lien A charge on specific property that is designed to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation. A debtor can still be responsible for a lien after a discharge,

Litigation A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants plaintiffs and defendants in lawsuits are called litigants.

Liquidation The sale of a debtor's property with the proceeds to be used for the benefit of creditors.

Liquidated claim A creditor's claim for a fixed amount of money.

Magistrate judge A judicial officer of a district court who conducts initial proceedings in criminal cases, decides criminal misdemeanor cases, conducts many pretrial civil and criminal matters on behalf of district judges, and decides civil cases with the consent of the parties,

Misdemeanor An offense punishable by one year of imprisonment or less.

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